Curing Light

Curing light models, modes and light tips can each significantly affect the light’s output.

AlShaafi M. Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas. Saudi Dent J. 2012;24(3-4):163-7.

Hao XQ, Luo M, Leng X, Zhu S. A survey of power density of clinical curing-light units used in Changchun. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2011;46(9):558-561.

Hegde V, Jadhav S, Aher GB. A clinical survey of the output intensity of 200 light curing units in dental offices across Maharashtra. J Conserv Dent 2009;12(3):105-108.

Barghi N, Fischer DE, Pham T. Revisiting the intensity output of curing lights in private dental offices. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2007;28(7):380-384.

Ernst CP, Busemann I, Kern T, Willershausen B. Feldtest zur lichtemissionsleistung von polymerisationsgeräten in zahnärztlichen praxen. Deutsche Zahnärztliche Zeitschrift 2006;61(9):466-471.

El-Mowafy O, El-Badrawy W, Lewis DW, Shokati B, Kermalli J, Soliman O, Encioiu A, Zawi R, Rajwani F. Intensity of quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing units used in private practice in Toronto. J Am Dent Assoc 2005;136(6):766-773.

Martin FE. A survey of the efficiency of visible light curing units. J Dent 1998;26(3):239-243.

Miyazaki M, Hattori T, Ichiishi Y, Kondo M, Onose H, Moore BK. Evaluation of curing units used in private dental offices. Oper Dent 1998;23(2):50-54.

Barghi N, Berry T, Hatton C. Evaluating intensity output of curing lights in private dental offices. J Am Dent Assoc 1994;125(7):992-996

Price RB, Labrie D, Whalen JM, Felix CM. Effect of distance on irradiance and beam homogeneity from 4 light-emitting diode curing units. J Can Dent Assoc 2011;77:b9.

Rode KM, Kawano Y, Turbino ML. Evaluation of curing light distance on resin composite microhardness and polymerization. Oper Dent 2007;32(6):571-578.

Aravamudhan K, Rakowski D, Fan PL. Variation of depth of cure and intensity with distance using LED curing lights. Dent Mater 2006;22(11):988-994.

Xu X, Sandras DA, Burgess JO. Shear bond strength with increasing light-guide distance from dentin. J Esthet Restor Dent 2006;18(1):19-27.

Ernst CP, Meyer GR, Müller J, Stender E, Ahlers MO, Willershausern B. Depth of cure of LED vs QTH light-curing devices at a distance of 7 mm. J Adhes Dent 2004;6(2):141-150.

Felix CA, Price RB. The effect of distance from light source on light intensity from curing lights. J Adhes Dent 2003;5(4):283-291.

Price RB, Ehrnford L, Andreou P, Felix CA. Comparison of quartz-tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode, and plasma arc curing lights. J Adhes Dent 2003;5(3):193-207.

Leloup G, Holvoet PE, Bebelman S, Devaux J. Raman scattering determination of the depth of cure of light-activated composites: influence of different clinically relevant parameters. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29(6):510-515.

Meyer GR, Ernst CP, Willershausen B. Decrease in power output of new light-emitting diode (LED) curing devices with increasing distance to filling surface. J Adhes Dent 2002;4(3):197-204.

Corciolani G, Vichi A, Davidson CL, Ferrari M. The influence of tip geometry and distance on light-curing efficacy. Oper Dent 2008;33(3):325-331.

Felix CA, Price RB. The effect of distance from light source on light intensity from curing lights. J Adhes Dent 2003;5(4):283-291.

Price RB, Dérand T, Sedarous M, Andreou P, Loney RW. Effect of distance on the power density from two light guides. J Esthet Dent 2000;12(6):320-327.

Michaud PL, Price RB, Labrie D, Rueggeberg FA, Sullivan B. Localised irradiance distribution found in dental light curing units. J Dent 2014;42(2):129-39.

Price RB, Labrie D, Rueggeberg FA, Felix CM. Irradiance differences in the violet (405 nm) and blue (460 nm) spectral ranges among dental light-curing units. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010;22(6):363-377.

Price RB, Rueggeberg FA, Labrie D, Felix CM. Irradiance uniformity and distribution from dental light curing units. J Esthet Restor Dent 2010;22(2):86-101.

Vandewalle KS, Roberts HW, Rueggeberg FA. Power distribution across the face of different light guides and its effect on composite surface microhardness. J Esthet Restor Dent 2008;20(2):108-117

Vandewalle KS, Roberts HW, Andrus JL, Dunn WJ. Effect of light dispersion of LED curing lights on resin composite polymerization. J Esthet Restor Dent 2005;17(4):244-255.

Spranley TJ, Winkler M, Dagate J, Oncale D, Strother E. Curing light burns. Gen Dent 2012;60(4):210-214.

Leprince J, Devaux J, Mullier T, Vreven J, Leloup G. Pulpal-temperature rise and polymerization efficiency of LED curing lights. Oper Dent 2010;35(2):220-230.

Baroudi K, Silikas N, Watts DC. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19(1):48-54.

Bagis B, Bagis Y, Ertas E, Ustaomer S. Comparison of the heat generation of light curing units. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9(2):65-72.

Durey K, Santini A, Miletic V. Pulp chamber temperature rise during curing of resin-based composites with different light-curing units. Prim Dent Care 2008;15(1):33-38.

Guiraldo RD, Consani S, Lympius T, Schneider LF, Sinhoreti MA, Correr-Sobrinho L. Influence of the light curing unit and thickness of residual dentin on generation of heat during composite photoactivation. J Oral Sci 2008;50(2):137-142.

Santini A, Watterson C, Miletic V. Temperature rise within the pulp chamber during composite resin polymerisation using three different light sources. Open Dent J 2008;2:137-141.

Daronch M, Rueggeberg FA, Hall G, De Goes MF. Effect of composite temperature on in vitro intrapulpal temperature rise. Dent Mater 2007;23(10):1283-1288.

Millen C, Ormond M, Richardson G, Santini A, Miletic V, Kew P. A study of temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite polymerization with different light-curing units. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8(7):29-37.

Bouillaguet S, Caillot G, Forchelet J, Cattani-Lorente M, Wataha JC, Krejci I. Thermal risks from LED- and high-intensity QTH-curing units during polymerization of dental resins. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005;72(2):260-267.

Price RB, Labrie D, Kazmi S, Fahey J, Felix CM. Intra- and inter-brand accuracy of four dental radiometers. Clin Oral Investig 2012;16(3):707-717.

Roberts HW, Vandewalle KS, Berzins DW, Charlton DG. Accuracy of LED and halogen radiometers using different light sources. J Esthet Restor Dent 2006;18(4):214-222.

Leonard DL, Charlton DG, Hilton TJ. Effect of curing-tip diameter on the accuracy of dental radiometers. Oper Dent 1999;24(1):31-37.

Operator Technique

Operator technique has a direct impact on the amount of energy that reaches the restoration. Proper eye protection,light tip control and proper curing light positioning increases the operator’s ability to optimally light cure.

Santini A, Turner S. General dental practitioners’ knowledge of polymerisation of resin-based composite restorations and light curing unit technology. Br Dent J 2011;211(6):E13.

El-Mowafy O, El-Badrawy W, Lewis DW, Shokati B, Kermalli J, Soliman O, Encioiu A, Zawi R, Rajwani F. Intensity of quartz-tungsten-halogen light-curing units used in private practices in Toronto. J Am Dent Assoc 2005;136(6):766-773.

Strydom C. Dental curing lights–maintenance of visible light curing units. SADJ 2002;57(6):227-233.

Solomon CS, Osman YI. Evaluating the efficacy of curing lights. SADJ 1999;54(8):357-362.

Miyazaki M, Hattori T, Ichiishi Y, Kondo M, Onose H, Moore BK. Evaluation of curing lights used in private dental offices. Oper Dent 1998;23(2):50-54.

Mutluay MM, Rueggeberg FA, Price RB. Effect of using proper light-curing techniques on energy delivered to a Class 1 restoration. Quintessence Int. 2014 Jul-Aug;45(7):549-56.

Price RB, Strassler HE, Price HL, Seth S, Lee CJ. The effectiveness of using a patient simulator to teach light-curing skills . JADA 2014;145:c32-43.

Seth S, Lee CJ, Ayer CD. Effect of Instruction on Dental Students’ Ability to Light-Cure a Simulated Restoration. J Can Dent Assoc 2012;78:c123.

Price RB, McLeod ME, Felix CM. Quantifying light energy delivered to a Class I restoration. J Can Dent Assoc 2010;76:a23

Busemann I, Lipke C, Schattenberg A, Willershausen B, Ernst CP. Shortest exposure time possible with LED curing lights. Am J Dent 2011;24(1):37-44.

Price RB, Felix CM, Whalen JM. Factors affecting the energy delivered to simulated class I and class V preparations. J Can Dent Assoc 2010;76:a94.

Coppola MN, Ozcan YA, Bogacki R. Evaluation of performance of dental providers on posterior restorations: does experience matter? A data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. J Med Syst 2003;27(5):445-56.

Davidson CL. Inter-operator variability in light-curing. Br Dent J 2002;193(5):270.

Shortall AC, Harrington E, Patel HB, Lumley PJ. A pilot investigation of operator variability during intra-oral light curing. Br Dent J 2002;193(5):276-80.

Baroudi K, Silikas N, Watts DC. In vitro pulp chamber temperature rise from irradiation and exotherm of flowable composites. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19(1):48-54.

Durey K, Santini A, Miletic V. Pulp chamber temperature rise during curing of resin-based composites with different light-curing units. Prim Dent Care 2008;15(1):33-8.

Santini A, Watterson C, Miletic V. Temperature rise within the pulp chamber during composite resin polymerisation using three different light sources. Open Dent J 2008;2:137-41.

Millen C, Ormond M, Richardson G, Santini A, Miletic V, Kew P. A study of temperature rise in the pulp chamber during composite polymerization with different light-curing units. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8(7):29-37.

Yazici AR, Muftu A, Kugel G. Temperature rise produced by different light-curing units through dentin. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;8(7):21-8.

Loney RW, Price RB. Temperature transmission of high-output light-curing units through dentin. Oper Dent 2001;26(5):516-520.

Wielgus AR, Roberts JE. Retinal photodamage by endogenous and xenobiotic agents. Photochem Photobiol 2012;88:1320-45.

Labrie D, Moe J, Price RB, Young ME, Felix CM. Evaluation of ocular hazards from 4 types of curing lights. J Can Dent Assoc 2011;77:b116.

Wielgus AR, Collier RJ, Martin E, Lih FB, Tomer KB, Chignell CF, Roberts JE. Blue light induced A2E oxidation in rat eyes- experimental animal model of dry AMD. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2010;9:1505-12.

Shaban H, Richter C. A2E and blue light in the retina: the paradigm of age-related macular degeneration. Biol Chem 2002;383:537-45.

Eriksen P, Moscato PM, Franks JK, Sliney DH. Optical hazard evaluation of dental curing lights. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15(4):197-201.

Ham WT Jr, Ruffolo JJ Jr, Mueller HA, Clarke AM, Moon ME. Histologic analysis of photochemical lesions produced in rhesus retina by short-wave-length light. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978;17(10):1029-1035.

AlShaafi MM. Effects of different infection control methods on the intensity output of LED light-curing units. King Saud University Journal of Dental Sciences 2013;4:27-31.

Hwang IN, Hong SO, Lee BN, Hwang YC, Oh WM, Chang HS. Effect of a multi-layer infection control barrier on the microhardness of a composite resin. J Appl Oral Sci 2012;20(5):576-80.

McAndrew R, Lynch CD, Pavli M, Bannon A, Milward P. The effect of disposable infection control barriers and physical damage on the power output of light curing units and light curing tips. Br Dent J 2011;210(8):E12.

Pollington S, Kahakachchi N, van Noort R. The influence of plastic light cure sheaths on the hardness of resin composite. Oper Dent. 2009 Nov-Dec;34(6):741-745.

Hodson NA, Dunne SM, Pankhurst CL. The effect of infection-control barriers on the light intensity of light-cure units and depth of cure of composite. Prim Dent Care 2005;12(2):61-67.

Kakaboura A, Tzoutzas J, Pitsinigos D, Vougiouklakis G. The effect of sterilization methods on the light transmission characteristics and structure of light-curing tips. J Oral Rehabil 2004;31(9):918-923.

Scott BA, Felix CA, Price RB. Effect of disposable infection control barriers on light output from dental curing lights. J Can Dent Assoc 2004;70(2):105-110.

Warren DP, Rice HC, Powers JM. Intensity of curing lights affected by barriers. J Dent Hyg 2000;74(1):20-3.

Nelson SK, Ruggeberg FA, Heuer GA, Ergle JV. Effect of glutaraldehyde-based cold sterilization solutions on light transmission of single-use, plastic light-curing tips. Gen Dent 1999;47(2):195-199.

Nelson SK, Caughman WF, Rueggeberg FA, Lockwood PE. Effect of glutaraldehyde cold sterilants on light transmission of curing tips. Quintessence Int 1997;28(11):725-730.

Restoration Characteristics

The size, type and location of the restoration and the patient’s opening all affect energy delivery.

Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. Influence of the cavity-size on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19(6):423-430.

He Z, Shimada Y, Sadr A, Ikeda M, Tagami J. The effects of cavity size and filling method on the bonding to Class I cavities. J Adhes Dent 2008;10(6):447-453.

da Rosa Rodolpho PA, Cenci MS, Donassollo TA, Loguércio AD, Demarco FF. A clinical evaluation of posterior composite restorations: 17-year findings. J Dent 2006;34(7):427-435.

Kamel FM, Bides MW, Leinfelder KF. Strain Profiles in molars restored with posterior composite resins: effect of cavity size & restorative technique. Egypt Dent J 1995;41(3):1327-1333.

Harun NA, Santini A, Roebuck EM. The effect of interincisal opening, cavity location and operator experience on the energy delivered by a light- curing unit to a simulated dental restoration. Prim Dent J. 2014 May; 3(2): 26-31.

Pallesen U, van Dijken JW, Halken J, Hallonsten AL, Höigaard R. Longevity of posterior composite restorations in permanent teeth in Public Dental Health Service: a prospective 8 years follow up. J Dent 2013;41(4):297-306.

Demarco FF, Corrêa MB, Cenci MS, Moraes RR, Opdam NJ. Longevity of posterior composite restorations: not only a matter of materials. Dent Mater 2012;28(1):87-101.

Hickel R, Manhart J. Longevity of restorations in posterior teeth and reasons for failure. J Adhes Dent 2001;3(1):45-64.

Shortall AC, Uctasli S, Marquis PM. Fracture resistance of anterior, posterior and universal light activated composite restoratives. Oper Dent 2001;26(1):87-96.

Sulaiman JMA. Analysis of Intensity in Different Light Cure Units Used in Dentistry. Al-Rafidain Dent J 2010;10(1):192-197

Radzi Z, Abu Kasim NH, Yayya NA, Abu Osman NA, Kassim NL. Relationship of the light intensity of selected light curing units with varying distance and angulation of the light curing tip and lightmeter. Annal Dent Univ Malaya 2008;15(1):33-39.

Radzi, Z., N. H. Abu Kasim, et al. (2007). Standardization of distance and
angulation of light curing unit tip using distometer
. 3rd Kuala Lumpur
International Conference on Biomedical Engineering 2006
. F. Ibrahim, N. A. A. Osman,
J. Usman and N. A. Kadri. 15: 141-143.

Energy Requirement

The amount, rate, and type of light energy delivered to light-cured dental material determines the properties of restorations.

Durner J, Obermaier J, Draenert M, Ilie N. Correlation of the degree of conversion with the amount of elutable substances in nano-hybrid dental composites. Dent Mater 2012;28(11):1146-1153.

Sigusch BW, Pflaum T, Völpel A, Gretsch K, Hoy S, Watts DC, Jandt KD. Resin-composite cytotoxicity varies with shade and irradiance. Dent Mater 2012;28(3):312-319.

Van Landuyt KL, Nawrot T, Geebelen B, De Munck J, Snauwaert J, Yoshihara K, Scheers H, Godderis L, Hoet P, Van Meerbeek B. How much do resin-based dental materials release? A meta-analytical approach. Dent Mater 2011;27(8):723-47.

Ergun G, Egilmez F, Cekic-Nagas I. The effect of light curing units and modes on cytotoxicity of resin-core systems. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15(6):e962-8.

Polydorou, O.; Konig, A.; Hellwig, E.; Kummerer, K. Long-term release of monomers from modern dental-composite materials. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 2009, 117(1), 68-75.

Knezevic A, Zeljezic D, Kopjar N, Tarle Z. Cytotoxicity of composite materials polymerized with LED curing units. Oper Dent 2008;33(1):23-30.

Sigusch BW, Völpel A, Braun I, Uhl A, Jandt KD. Influence of different light curing units on the cytotoxicity of various dental composites. Dent Mater 2007;23(11):1342-1348.

Franz A, König F, Anglmayer M, Rausch-Fan X, Gille G, Rausch WD, Lucas T, Sperr W, Schedle A. Cytotoxic effects of packable and nonpackable dental composites. Dent Mater 2003;19(5):382-392.

Ferracane JL. Elution of leachable components from composites. J Oral Rehabil 1994;21(4):441-452.

Alomari QD, Barrieshi-Nusair K, Ali M. Effect of C-factor and LED curing mode on microleakage of class V resin composite restorations. Eur J Dent 2011;5(4):400-408.

Kermanshahi S, Santerre JP, Cvitkovitch DG, Finer Y. Biodegradation of resin-dentin interfaces increases bacterial microleakage. J Dent Res 2010;89(9):996-1001.

Brambilla E, Gagliani M, Ionescu A, Fadini L, García-Godoy F. The influence of light-curing time on the bacterial colonization of resin composite surfaces. Dent Mater 2009;25(9):1067-1072.

Hansel C, Leyhausen G, Mai UEH, Geurtsen W. Effects of various resin composite (co)monomers and extracts on two caries-associated micro-organisms in vitro. J Dent Res 1998;77(1):60-67.

Flury S, Hayoz S, Peutzfeldt A, Hüsler J, Lussia A. Depth of cure of resin composites: Is the ISO 4049 method suitable for bulk fill materials? Dent Mater 2012;28(5):521-528.

Leprince JG, Leveque P, Nysten B, Gallez B, Devaux J, Leloup G. New insight into the “depth of cure” of dimethacrylate-based dental composites. Dent Mater 2012;28(5):512-520.

Moore BK, Platt JA, Borges G, Chu TMG, Katsilieri I. Depth of cure of dental resin composites: ISO 4049 depth and microhardness of types of materials and shades. Operative Dent 2008;33(4):408-412.